I. Ragtime
A. Ragtime is a piano jazz style that developed about 1900.
B. Scott Joplin, the leading composer and performer of the style.
C. St. Louis became the capital of ragtime.
D. Ragtime is a combination of European form and harmony jazzed up.
E. The music is always written down.
F. The music has four sections.
G. The left hand played an "omm- pah" rhythm.

II. The Blues
A. Before and after the Civil War the life of the black man in America was filled with misery.
B. The blues is usually improvised.
C. There are commonly three lines in a blues song; the singer states his problem in the first line, the problem is repeated in the second line and it is solved in the third line. Thus the blues form is shown by the letters AAB.
D. Instruments accompanied blue singers. In this kind of blues each line has sixteen beats; nine of these beats are used by the singer, the other seven by the instrumentalist.
E. The blues resembles call and response.
F. The blues style borrowed its harmony and definite form from the white tradition.
III. Boogie Woogie
A. Boogie Woogie is a jazz piano style which is based on the form and the harmony of the blues.
B. Boogie Woogie is made up of a bass ostinato that consists of eight notes per measure. ( eight-to-the-bar)
C. the boogie bass line was first called a "walking bass line".
D. The ostinato bass continues throughout the piece, but changes to fit the harmonic structure of the blues.
E. The right hand plays a syncopated melody often sliding on the keys in an attempt to imitate the blues singer.
IV. New Orleans and Chicago Dixieland
A. 1900-1920
B. Instruments N.O. Dixieland -clarinet,trombone, drums,banjo, tuba, and cornet.
C. Louis ("Satchmo") Armstrong is the most famous Dixeland musician. Known for his trumpet playing and singing style.

D.. Storyville was an interesting section of New Orleans devoted to full-time entertainment.
E. In 1917 Storyville was closed down.
F. The southern musicians brought their Dixieland style with them to Chicago, the farthest major city up the river from New Orleans.
G. Chicago became the new center for jazz in the 1920's.
H. Some of the changes made in Chicago dixieland were:
1. The tenor sax became an important instrument in the band.
2. The guitar replaced the banjo.
3. The pieces had long and more elaborate introductions and endings.
4. The simple New Orleans rhythm was changed to the syncopated rhythms used in ragtime.
5. An easy style was replaced by a style that required more drive.
6. Individual solos became even more important, especially the drums.
I. The sounds of the bands became more polished and professional.
V. Swing
A. The 1930's were nicknamed "the era of the big bands".
B. The bands were larger and did not take blues melodies for their themes.
C. Swing used more harmony and was much more complex than the Dixieland harmony.
D. Performers did improvise as freely as they did in Dixieland.
E. Many bands now included:
1. Three trumpets
2. Two trombones
3. Five saxophones
4. Piano
5. Drums
6. Guitar
7. String bass
F. The arranger became important. ( He is the person who writes the music.)
G. Records were made.
H. The recording industry was important in the development of jazz.
I. Because of phonographs, records, and radios with earphones jazz became popular .
J. Dancers liked the music of the big bands.
K. Thus the big band music became known as "swing".
L. Fletcher Henderson, Benny Goodman (The King of swing), Glenn Miller and Duke Ellington were well known figures of the swing era.
VI. Bebop
A. The new style of the 1940"s.
B. A jazz style that is none traditional.
C. This was the time of segregation.
D. The black musicians tried to perform a kind of jazz that would be totally different from the white jazz of the swing style.
E. Some characteristics of the bebop style were:
1. The vibraphone became an important band instrument.
2. The drummer kept the beat on the high hat, thus the beat was very weak and often missing.
3. The soloist were given greater freedom to improvise.
4. The music was intended for listening and not for dancing.
5. The groups were small.
6. The instruments often played in unison.
7. The string bass became important.
F. Most people did not care for bebop because it was so far out.
G. Dizzy Gillespie and Thelonious Monk made this kind of jazz exciting.
VII. Cool
A. The new style of the 1950's.
B. Cool is a type of jazz that developed out of the bebop style.
C. Some of the characteristics of cool jazz are:
1. A light sound with little or no vibrato.
2. Small groups;
3. Instruments played in a thoughtful rather than in a highly emotional style.
4. Easy to listen to;
5. Sometimes instruments such as the flute, french horn, strings, etc. were added to this ensemble.
VIII. Free
A. The 1960's saw the development of free jazz.
B. This kind of music rejected all traditional rules for melody, form, harmony, and meter.
C. Each player improvised as he heard the music and the expression often sounded like noise instead of music.
D. This kind of jazz requires listeners who can appreciate the creative inventions of each individual, and who can value the music of the ensemble without putting limits on the player.