I. African Source of Music
A. Black American music has its roots Africa.
Uses are as follow:
1. Religious services
2. Healing the sick
3. Work
4. Play
5. Celebration
6. Mourn
B. Rhythm is the main foundation.
Percussion instruments:
1. Drums
2. Rattles
3. Bells
4. Gongs
C. Percussionist use Polyrhythms. ( rhythms that are played at the same time)
D. Body percussion was an important source of sound.
E. African dances may feature as many as 6 rhythms at once.
F. African music uses Call and Response.

II. European Sources of Music
A. The second main source of jazz is the music brought to America by the white immigrants from Western Europe.
B. The immigrants came to America in search of Religious freedom which answers why the songs they sang were simple church songs.
C. American composers published hymns in four-part harmony. (which means two or more notes sounding at the same time)
D. The European culture was much more advanced in harmony than the African culture.
E. The black man was fascinated with the white man's harmony as he listened to church hymns, brass marching bands, and popular songs.
F. White music consists of four measures to a phrase.

III. United States Sources
A. The Hollar
1. The Hollar is a field song or cry which came from Africa.
2. The American slaves were often not permitted to speak to each other while working in the fields, however, they were allowed to sing.
3. The Africans used song as a means of sending messages to one another.
4, Many of the hollars had double meanings.
B. The Work Song
1. The work songs of the slaves in America were similar to the work songs that they had sung in Africa.
2. The tempo or speed of the music was suggested by the kind of labor that was being being done.
3. Often sounds like "wham", "huh", "wah" were added at the end of the phrases.
C. The Spiritual
1. The Africans were not introduced to Christianity until they came to the United States.
2. Slave holders encouraged the singing of Christian hymns.
3. The slaves formed underground churches.
4. The black man used the spiritual for more than purely religious purposes.
5. Some times the spiritual was sung as a code with words that had a double meaning.
6. The message of the Bible was a welcome one for most black slaves.